In any pipeline there will come a point where it is necessary to reduce the size of the pipe. If this occurs at a branch point then this is a relatively simple matter as the designer introduces T pipe fittings with a reduced pipe size on the branch connection.
There are some instances, however, where it is necessary to reduce the pipeline size in a straight run of pipe. On the face of it this may seem a simple matter, however there is one key factor that the installer must watch out for.
If the reduction in the pipeline is to be located on a horizontal section of pipe then it can be critical that the correct pipe fittings are used. To achieve the reduction an eccentric or concentric reducer is required. If the wrong one is used it can create problems with the operation of the pipeline.
Reducer pipe fittings, by their very nature can introduce a step into the pipeline. If the fluid being pumped contains sediment (such as sand in sea water) these will collect at this step if it is on the bottom of the pipe. If the liquid contains bubbles of gas these will collected at a step in the top of the pipe.
If enough gas or solids collect they can break free sending a slug of gas or solid material along the pipe. This slug can, in extreme circumstances cause problems to equipment such as sensor probes or pumps further down the line.
If the liquid to be moved has these problems then the answer is simple. Eccentric reducing pipe fittings must be used and installed so that the top run is straight if gas is present or the bottom run is straight if solids are present.
At Chemipetro we manufacture all nature of pipe fittings including eccentric reducers of all sizes.